Books and Articles

This page shows selected publications of BCSSS board members, scientific council members, fellows and coworkers.


Midgley G, Nicholson, J., Brennan, R. (2017). Dealing with Challenges to Methodological Pluralism: The Paradigm Problem, Psychological Resistance and Cultural Barriers. Industrial Marketing Management

Midgley, G. (2017). Reflections on the CPTS Model of Interdisciplinarity. In Reason, Faith and Practice in Our Common Home: Feschrift in Honour of Sytse Strijbos. Boshuijzen-van Burken, C., Haftor, D. (eds.). CPTS: Maarssen.


Díaz, N. J. M., Pérez-Montoro, G. M., & Salto, A. F. (2016). glossariumBITri Ed.2 2016. Interdisciplinary Elucidation of Concepts, Metaphors, Theories and Problems Concerning INFORMATION. Ecuador: Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena.

Drack, M. (2016). The layer model of Rupert Riedl. Pages 329–xxx in: Aktuelle Bloch-Studien 2013/2014, edited by Zimmermann, R. E. Aachen: Shaker.

Gregory, W. J., Midgley, G. (2016). Planning for Disaster: Developing a Multi-Agency Counselling Service. In Operational Research for Emergency Planning in Healthcare: Volume 2. Mustafee, N. (ed.). Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Hofkirchner, W. (2016). Ethics from Systems: Origin, Development and Current State of Normativity. In Archer, M. S. (ed.), Morphogenesis and the Crisis of Normativity, 279-295: Springer, Dordrecht.

Hofkirchner, W. (2016). Relationality in Social Systems. Social Relations in the Focus of Social Theory. In Li, W. (ed.), “Für unser Glück oder das Glück anderer”, Vorträge des X. Internationalen Leibniz-Kongresses, Hannover, 18.-23. Juli 2016, Vol. V., 235-243: Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim, Zürich, New York.

Hofkirchner, W. (2016). The Commons and Global Sustainable Information Society (GSIS). In: Baier, W., Canepa, E., Himmelstoss, E. (eds.), transform! Yearbook 2016: the Enigma of Europe,173-182: Merlin Press, London.

Kieninger, P. R., Gugerell, K., Penker, M. (2016). Governance-mix for resilient socio-ecological production landscapes in Austria – an example of the terraced riverine landscape Wachau. In: United Nations University, Satoyama Initiative Thematic Review vol. 2: Mainstreaming concepts and approaches of socio-ecological production landscapes and seascapes into policy and decision-making, 36-49.

Lange, A., Müller, G.B. (2016). Polydactyly indevelopment, inheritance, and evolution. The Quarterly Review of Biology

Midgley, G. (2016). Four Domains of Complexity. Emergence: Complexity and Organization, 18 (2), 137-150.

Nödl, M. T., Kerbl, A., Walzl, M., Müller, G. B., de Couet, H. G. (2016) The cephalopod arm crown: Appendage formation and differentiation in the Hawaiian bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes. Frontiers in Zoology.

Peterson, T., Müller, G. B. (2016). Phenotypic Novelty in EvoDevo: The distinction between continuous and discontinuous variation and its importance in evolutionary theory. Evolutionary Biology. Springer US.

Schauppenlehner-Kloyber, E., Penker, M. (2016): Between participation and collective action – from occasional liaisons towards long term co-management for urban resilience. Sustainability (Section: Sustainable Urban and Rural Development),
8 (7), 664.

Tegegne, A.D., Penker, M., Wurzinger, M. (2016): Participatory Demographic Scenarios Addressing Uncertainty and Transformative Change in Ethiopia. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 29 (3), 277-296: Springer International Publishing.

Velez-Castiblanco, J., Brocklesby, J., Midgley, G. (2016). Boundary Games: How Teams of OR Practitioners Explore the Boundaries of Intervention. European Journal of Operational Research, 249, 968-982

Wallot, C., Gebetsroither-Geringer, E., Atun, F., & Werner, L.C. (Eds.) (2016). Understanding Complex Urban Systems. Integrating Multidisciplinary Data in Urban Models. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Wallot, C. (2016). Emergent Nested Systems. A Theory of Understanding Complex Systems as well as Case Studies in Urban Systems. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.


Barros, R., Midgley, G., Pinzón, L. (2015). Systemic Intervention for Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 32(1), 86-105.

Braziller, G. (ed.) (2015). Ludwig von Bertalanffy. General System Theory. Foundations, Development, Applications: George Braziller Inc., New York.

Hofkirchner, W. (2015). Ethics for a Global Sustainable Information Society. In: Doucek, P., Chroust, G., and Oskrdal, V. (eds.), IDIMT-2015, Information Technology and Society, Interaction and Interdependence, Schriftenreihe Informatik 44, 281–288: Trauner, Linz.

Hofkirchner, W. (2015). “Mechanisms” at Work in the Information Society. In: Archer, M. S. (ed.), Generative Mechanisms Transforming the Social Order, 95-112: Springer, Dordrecht.

Laland, K. N., Uller, T., Feldman, M., Sterelny, K., Müller, G.B., Moczek, A., Jablonka, E., Odling-Smee, J. (2015). The Extended Evolutionary Synthesis: Its structure, assumptions, and predictions.

Midgley, G. (2015). Critique of Contingency Frameworks. In Gedenkschrift to Honour Brenda Zimmerman. Michael Quinn Paton (Editor).

Midgley, G. (2015). Systemic Intervention. In The Sage Handbook of Action Research. 3rd Edition. Bradbury-Huang, H. (ed.). SAGE UK.

Penker, M., Muhar, A. (2015): What’s actually new about transdisciplinarity? How scholars from applied studies can benefit from cross-disciplinary learning processes on transdisciplinarity. In Gibbs, P. (ed.): Transdisciplinary Professional Learning and Practice. 135-147. Cham Heidelberg NewYork Dordrecht London: Springer International Publishing.

Radinger-Peer, V., Penker, M., Chiari, S., Danzinger, G., Enengel, B., Kühnel, F., Sammer, K. (2015): Regional Vulnerability to Climate Change and Energy Provision – Lessons Learned from Transdisciplinary Assessments in Austria and Germany. GAIA – Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society, 24(4), 261-270. oekom verlag München.

Rajagopalan, R., Midgley, G. (2015). Knowing Differently in Systemic Intervention. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 32(5), 546-561.

Schauppenlehner-Kloyber, E., Penker, M. (2015): Managing group processes in transdisciplinary future studies: How to facilitate social learning and capacity building for self-organized action towards sustainable urban development?, 57-71: Futures 65.

Scott, H. M., Midgley, G., Loneragan, G. H. (2015). Antimicrobials in Animal Agriculture: Parables and Policy. Zoonoses and Public Health, 62 (supplement 1), 3-9.

Shen, C. Y., Midgley, G. (2015). Action Research in a Problem Avoiding Culture using a Buddhist Systems Methodology. Action Research, 13(2), 170-193.

Zimmermann, R. E. (2015). Metaphysics of Emergence. Part 1: On the Foundations of Systems. MoMo Berlin Philosophische Kontexte Bd. 6. Berlin: Xenemoi Verlag.


Cronin, K., Midgley, G., Jackson L. S. (2014). Issues Mapping: A Problem Structuring Method for Addressing Science and Technology Conflicts. European Journal of Operational Research, 233, 145-158.

Hofkirchner, W. (2014). “Global Sustainable Information Society” – Vision for the Future. In: Academics 188, No.1, Jan. 2014, 254–258. China

Hofkirchner, W. (2014). Idiotism and the Logic of the Third. In: Lakitsch, M. (ed.), Political Power Reconsidered – State Power and Civic Activism between Legitimacy and Violence, Peace Report 2013, 55–76: LIT Verlag, Münster.

Hofkirchner, W. (2014). On the Validity of Describing ‘Morphogenic Society’ as a System and Justifiability of Thinking About It as a Social Formation. In: Archer, M. S. (ed.), Late Modernity: Trajectories towards Morphogenic Society, 119-141: Springer, Dordrecht.

Hofkirchner, W. (2014). Potentials and Risks for Creating a Global Sustainable Information Society. In: Fuchs, C., Sandoval, M. (eds.), Critique, Social Media and the Information Society, 66-75: Routledge, New York, London.

Hofkirchner, W. (2014). The commons from a critical social systems perspective. In: Recerca, no. 14, Special Issue, “New Insights into Relational Goods”, ed. by Donati, P., Calvo, P., 73-91

Laland, K., Uller, T., Feldman, M., Sterelny, K., Müller, G.B., Moczek, A., Jablonka, E. Odling-Smee, J. (2014). Does evolutionary theory need a rethink? Yes, urgently! Nature, 514: 161-164.

Logan, R. K. (2014). What is Information? Propagating Organization in the Biosphere, Symbolosphere, Technosphere and Econosphere. Toronto: DEMO Publishing.

Mayer, C., Mitteroecker, P., Metscher, B.D., Müller, G.B. (2014). Studying Developmental Variation with Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis (GMIA).

Nicholson, J., Brennan, D., Midgley, G. (2014). Gaining Access to Agency and Structure in Industrial Marketing Theory: a Critical Pluralist Approach. Marketing Theory, 14(4), 395-416.

Noble, D., Jablonka, E., Joyner, M., Müller, G.B., Omholt, S. (2014). Evolution evolves: Physiology returns to centre stageThe Journal of Physiology, 592 (11): 2237–2244. 

Pouvreau, D. (2014). On the history of Ludwig von Bertalanffy’s “general systemology”, and on its relationship to cybernetics – Part II: Contexts and developments of the systemological hermeneutics instigated by von BertalanffyInternational Journal of General Systems, 43/2: 172-275.

Pouvreau, D. (2014). The Hermeneutical System of General Systemology: Bertalanffian and Other Early Contributions to Its Foundations and Development. In D. S. Arnold (Ed.) Traditions of Systems Theory, Major Figures and Contemporary Developments (pp. 84-136). New York: Routledge.

Wallot, C., Gurr, J. M., & Schmidt, J. A. (Eds.) (2014). Understanding Complex Urban Systems: Multidisciplinary Approaches to Modelling. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.


Flint, C. G., Kunze, I., Muhar, A., Yoshida, Y., Penker, M. (2013): Exploring empirical typologies of human-nature relationships and linkages to the ecosystem services concept. Landscape and Urban Planning 120, 208-217.

Hofkirchner, W. (2013). Emergent Information. A Unified Theory of Information Framework. Singapore etc.: World Scientific.

Hofkirchner, W. (2013). Self-Organisation as the Mechanism of Development and Evolution in Social Systems. In M. Archer S. (Ed.) Social Morphogenesis (pp. 125-143). Dordrecht: Springer.

Midgley, G., Cavana, R. Y., Brocklesby, J., Foote, J., Ahuriri-Driscoll, A., Wood, D. (2013). Towards a New Framework for Evaluating Systemic Problem Structuring Methods. European Journal of Operational Research, 229, 143-154.

Midgley, G., Pinzón, L. (2013). Systemic Mediation: Moral Reasoning and Boundaries of Concern. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 30, 607–632.

Pouvreau, D. (2013). The project of “general systemology” instigated by Ludwig von Bertalanffy: Genealogy, genesis, reception and advancement. Kybernetes 42/6, Pages 851-868.

Pouvreau, D. (2013). Une histoire de la « systémologie générale » de Ludwig von Bertalanffy – Généalogie, genèse, actualisation et postérité d’un projet herméneutique. Paris: Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS).


Bunge, M. (2012). Evaluating Philosophies. (Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science n. 295). Dordrecht: Springer.

Hofkirchner, W. (2012). Sustainability and Self-Organisation: Sustainability in the Perspective of Complexity and Systems Science and Ethical Considerations.In Nishigaki T. and Takenouchi T. (Eds.) Information Ethics – The Future of Humanities (pp. 191-217). Nagoya City, Japan: V2 Solution.

Kornwachs, K. (2012). Strukturen technologischen Wissens. Analytische Studien zu einer Wissenschaftstheorie der Technik. Berlin: Edition Sigma.

Morin, E. (2012). Der Weg. Für die Zukunft der Menschheit. Hamburg: Reinhold Krämer Verlag.

Vesterby, V. (2012). From Bertalanffy to discipline-independent-transdisciplinarity. ISSS Conference 2012, San José, California.


Grace, V., Midgley, G., Veth, J., Ahuriri-Driscoll, A. (2011). Forensic DNA Evidence on Trial: Science and Uncertainty in the Courtroom: Emergent Publications, Litchfield Park AZ.

Hofkirchner, W. & Schafranek, M. (2011). General System Theory. In C. Hooker, D.M. Gabbay, P. Thagard, J. Woods (Eds.), Philosophy of Complex Systems, Handbook of the Philosophy of Science (pp. 177-194), Vol. 10, Amsterdam, North Holland.

Midgley, G., Pinzón, L. (2011). Boundary Critique and its implications for conflict prevention. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 62, 1543-1554. Springer International Publishing.

Midgley ,G. (2011). Theoretical Pluralism in Systemic Action Research. Systems Practice and Action Research, 24, 1-15. Springer US


Chroust, G. & Schoitsch, E. (2010). Systemic aspects of choosing basic architectural patterns in systems design. In J. Gu, J. Xu (Eds.) Proceedings of 2010 General Assembly of International Academy of Systems and Cybernetic Sciences (pp. 18-24), IFSR and IASCYS.

Hofkirchner, W. (2010). Teaching transdisciplinarity: the case of ICTs and society. In J. Gu, J. Xu (Eds.), Proceedings of 2010 General Assembly of International Academy of Systems and Cybernetic Sciences (pp. 26-29), IFSR and IASCYS.

Midgley, G., Pinzón, L. (2010). The Implications of Boundary Critique for Conflict Prevention. In Basden, A., Haftor, D., Grobler, L. M. J. (eds.). Systems Thinking and Philosophy as Interdisciplinarity. CPTS, Maarssen.

Morin, E. (2010). Die Methode: Die Natur der Natur. Vienna: Turia + Kant.

Schliefnig, M. (2010). Ein computationales Modell für die Allgemeine Systemtheorie (Computational General System Theory). PhD thesis, Vienna University of Technology.

Zehetmayer, B. (2010). …aber vom Menschen wissen wir nichts. Zur systemischen Anthropologie Ludwig von Bertalanffys. In C. Zehetner, H. Rauchenschwandtner, B. Zehetmayer (Eds.), Transformationen der kritischen Anthropologie (pp. 197-212). Vienna: Löcker.

Zehetmayer, B. (2010). Eine österreichische Version der Biopolitik: Wo der Anspruch alles erklären zu können wissenschaftliches Vorankommen erschwert. In R. Knoll, M. Benedikt et al. (Eds.), Verdrängter Humanismus, verzögerte Aufklärung. Auf der Suche nach authentischem Philosophieren. Philosophie in Österreich 1951–2000, Band VI (pp. 431-446) Vienna: Facultas.


Foote, J.L., Gregor, J. E., Hepi, M. C., Baker, V. E, Houston, D. J., Midgley, G. (2009). The Theory and Practice of Boundary Critique: An Application to Community Involvement in Water Conservation. In Sheffield, J. (ed.). Systemic Development: Local Solutions in a Global Environment. ISCE Publishing, Litchfield Park AZ.

Hofkirchner, W. (2009). “Community” – Where to from Here? From “networked individualism” towards “community networks”. Journal of Sociocybernetics,7:62-72.


Chroust, G., Drack, M. & Müller, K. H. (2008). Vienna – The Systems Archive – Dream or More? In Trappl, R. (Ed.) Cybernetics and Systems, Proceedings of EMCSR (pp. 595 – 599). Vienna: OSGK.

Córdoba, J.-R., Midgley, G. (2008). Beyond Organisational Agendas: Using Boundary Critique to Facilitate the Inclusion of Societal Concerns in Information Systems Planning. European Journal of Information Systems, 17, 125-142. Springer International Publishing.

Midgley, G. (2008). Systems Thinking, Complexity and the Philosophy of Science. Emergence: Complexity and Organization, 10(4), 55-73. Emergent Publications


Boyd A, Geerling T, Gregory W, Kagan C, Midgley G, Murray P and Walsh M. (2007). Systemic Evaluation: A Participative, Multi-Method Approach. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 58, 1306-1320. Springer International Publishing

Drack, M. & Apfalter, W. (2007). Is Paul A. Weiss’ and Ludwig von Bertalanffy’s system thinking still valid today? System Research and Behavioral Science, 24: 537-546.

Drack, M., Apfalter, W. & Pouvreau, D. (2007). On the Making of a System Theory of Life: Paul A Weiss and Ludwig von Bertalanffy’s Conceptual ConnectionThe Quarterly Review of Biology, 82: 349-373.

Foote, J., Baker, V., Gregor, J., Hepi, M., Houston, D., Midgley, G. (2007). Systems Thinking for Community Involvement in Water Conservation. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 58, 645-654.

Midgley, G., Ahuriri-Driscoll A., Baker, V., Foote, J., Hepi, M., Taimona, H., Rogers-Koroheke, M., Gregor, J., Gregory, W., Lange, M., Veth, J., Winstanley, A., Wood, D. (2007). Practitioner Identity in Systemic Intervention: Reflections on the Promotion of Environmental Health through Māori Community Development. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 24, 233-247.

Midgley, G., Richardson, K. (2007). Systems Thinking for Community Involvement in Policy Analysis. Emergence: Complexity and Organization, 9, 167-183. Emergent Publications

Pouvreau, D. & Drack, M. (2007). On the history of Ludwig von Bertalanffy’s “General Systemology”, and on its relationship to Cybernetics – Part I: Elements on the origins and genesis of Ludwig von Bertalanffy’s “General Systemology”International Journal of General Systems, 36: 281-337.

Shen, C.-Y., Midgley, G. (2007). Toward a Buddhist Systems Methodology 1: Comparisons between Buddhism and Systems Theory. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 20, 167-194.


Córdoba, J.-R., Midgley, G. (2006). Broadening the Boundaries: An Application of Critical Systems Thinking to IS Planning in Colombia. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 57, 1064-1080. Springer International Publishing.

Midgley, G. (2006). Reflections on the CPTS Model of Interdisciplinarity. In Strijbos, S. and Basden, A. (eds.). In Search of an Integrative Vision of Technology: Interdisciplinary Studies in Informations Systems. Springer, New York.

Midgley, G. (2006). Systemic Intervention for Public Health. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 466-472.

Midgley, G. (2006). Systems Thinking, Complexity and the Philosophy of Science. In Basden, A., Mirijamdotter, A., Strijbos, S. (eds.). Integrating Visions of Technology. CPTS, Maarssen.

Midgley, G. (2006). Systems Thinking for Evaluation. In Williams, R., Imam, I. (eds.). Systems Concepts in Evaluation: An Expert Anthology. EdgePress, Point Reyes CA.

Ossimitz, G. & Lapp, C. (2006). Systeme. Denken und Handeln. Das Metanoia-Prinzip. Eine Einführung. Hildesheim: Franzbecker.

Pouvreau, D. (2006). Une biographie non officielle de Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901-1972). Wien: BCSSS.

Richardson, K., Gregory, W., Midgley, G. (2006). Systems Thinking and Complexity Science: Insights for Action: ISCE Press, Boston MA


Davidson, M. (2005). QuErDenken! Leben und Werk Ludwig von Bertalanffys. Wien: Peter Lang.

Hofkirchner, W. (2005). Ludwig von Bertalanffy. Forerunner of Evolutionary Systems Theory. In: Gu, J. & Chroust, G. (Eds.), The New Role of Systems Sciences For a Knowledge-based Society. Proceedings of the First World Congress of the International Federation for Systems Research, Kobe, Japan.


Foote, J., Baker, V., Gregor, J., Houston, D., Midgley, G. (2004). Boundary Critique and Community Involvement in Watershed Management. In Dew, K., Fitzgerald, R. (eds.) Challenging Science: Science and Society Issues in New Zealand. Dunmore Press, Palmerston North.

Midgley, G. (2004). Five Sketches of Post-Modernism: Implications for Systems Thinking and Operational Research. Organizational Transformation and Social Change, 1, 47-62.

Midgley, G., Ochoa-Arias, A. E. Community Operational Research: OR and Systems Thinking for Community Development. Kluwer, New York.

Midgley, G. (2004). Reflections on the CPTS Model of Interdisciplinarity. In, Interdisciplinarity and the Integration of Knowledge. De Vries, M.J., Bergvall-Kareborn, B., and Strijbos, S. (eds.). CPTS, Amersfoort, the Netherlands.

Midgley, G., Reynolds, M. (2004). Systems/Operational Research and Sustainable Development: Towards a New Agenda. Sustainable Development, 12, 56-64.

Midgley, G. (2004). Systems Thinking for the 21st Century. International Journal of Knowledge and Systems Sciences, 1, 63-69.


Córdoba, J.-R., Midgley, G. (2003). Addressing Organisational and Societal Concerns: An Application of Critical Systems Thinking to Information Systems Planning in Colombia. In Cano, J. (ed.). Critical Reflections on Information Systems: A Systemic Approach. Idea Group, Hershey.

Midgley, G. (2003). Science as Systemic Intervention: Some Implications of Systems Thinking and Complexity for the Philosophy of Science. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 16, 77-97.

Midgley, G (2003). Systems Thinking, Volume I: Systems Science, Cybernetics and Complexity. SAGE UK, London

Midgley, G. (2003). Systems Thinking, Volume II: Systems Theories and Modelling. SAGE UK, London

Midgley G (2003). Systems Thinking, Volume III: Second Order Cybernetics, Systemic Therapy and Soft Systems Thinking. SAGE UK, London

Midgley G (2003). Systems Thinking, Volume IV: Critical Systems Thinking and Systemic Perspectives on Ethics, Power and Pluralism. SAGE UK, London


Midgley, G. (2002). Boundary. In Daellenbach, H., Flood, R. L. (eds.). The Informed Student Guide to Management Science. Thompson Learning, London.

Midgley, G., Boyd, A., Geerling, T., Gregory, W., Kagan, C., Murray, P., Walsh, M. (2002). Systemic Evaluation: Three Flexible and Inclusive Approaches. Revista Gerencia y Políticas de Salud, 1(2), 5-17.

Midgley, G. (2002). Critical Systems Thinking. In Daellenbach, H., Flood, R. L. (eds.). The Informed Student Guide to Management Science. Thompson Learning, London.

Midgley, G. (2002). Community Operational Research. In Daellenbach, H., Flood, R. L. (eds.). The Informed Student Guide to Management Science. Thompson Learning, London.

Midgley, G., Daellenbach, H. (2002). Problem Structuring Methods. In Daellenbach, H., Flood, R. L. (eds.). The Informed Student Guide to Management Science. Thompson Learning, London.

Midgley, G., Reynolds, M. (2002). Operational Research and Environmental Management: A New Agenda. In Ragsdell, G., West, D., Wilby, J. (eds.). Systems Thinking and Practice in the Knowledge Age. Kluwer/Plenum, New York. Springer US.


Midgley, G., Ochoa-Arias, A. E. (2001). Unfolding a Theory of Systemic Intervention. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 14, 615-650.

Midgley, G. (2001). Rethinking the Unity of Science. International Journal of General Systems, 30, 379-409.

Midgley, G. (2001). Systems Thinking for the 21st Century. In Ragsdell, G. and Wilby, J. (eds.). Understanding Complexity. Kluwer/Plenum, New York. Springer US.


Córdoba, J.-R., Midgley, G., Torres, D. (2000). Rethinking Stakeholder Involvement: An Application of the Theories of Autopoiesis and Boundary Critique in IS Planning. In Clarke, S., Lehaney, B. (eds.). Human-Centered Methods in Information Systems: Current Research and Practice. Idea Group, Hershey.

Gregory, W., Midgley, G. (2000). Planning for Disaster: Developing a Multi-Agency Counselling Service. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 51, 278-290. Springer International Publishing.

Midgley, G., Gu, J., Campbell, D. (2000). Dealing with Human Relations in Chinese Systems Practice. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 13, 71-96. Springer International Publishing.

Pinzón, L., Midgley, G. (2000). Developing a Systemic Model for the Evaluation of Conflicts. Systems Research & Behavioral Science, 17, 493-512.